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RI Rawan Bencana, Tata Ruang Harus Sesuai Peta Gempa – Tata Ruang dan Lingkungan Hidup
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Home / Kliping / RI Rawan Bencana, Tata Ruang Harus Sesuai Peta Gempa
RI Rawan bencana

RI Rawan Bencana, Tata Ruang Harus Sesuai Peta Gempa

RI Rawan bencana

Jakarta – Kondisi geografis Indonesia yang bersinggungan dengan 3 lempeng tektonik membuatnya rawan terjadi bencana. Data Badan Nasional Penangulangan Bencana (BNPB) sampai dengan pertengahan Oktober 2018 mencatat setidaknya ada 1.230 frekuensi kejadian bencana.

Direktur Jenderal (Dirjen) Tata Ruang Kementerian Agraria dan Tata Ruang (ATR) Abdul Kamarzuki mengatakan, dengan kondisi tersebut Indonesia harus memiliki upaya mitigasi tata ruang.

Menurutnya, penataan ruang memiliki peran besar dalam upaya mitigasi bencana. Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (RTRW) mengatur kesesuaian peruntukan suatu lahan. Apakah suatu lahan dapat dibangun atau tidak, ditetapkan lewat dokumen RTRW sebagai konsensus yang mengikat pihak terkait, baik pemerintah pusat dan daerah.

“Upaya peningkatan kualitas Rencana Tata Ruang (RTR) khususnya terkait aspek pengurangan risiko bencana terus kami lakukan berkolaborasi dengan pihak-pihak terkait seperti Badan Geologi, Kementerian PUPR dan Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG),” kata Abdul Kamarzuki dalam keterangan tertulis, Rabu (10/10/2018).

Saat ini telah banyak pihak yang melansir peta kerawanan bahaya namun masih bersifat makro. Kebutuhan perencanaan saat ini adalah rencana rinci.

Maka dari itu, Peta Gempa 2017 yang diterbitkan Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat (PUPR) dengan skala nasional perlu dirincikan ke dalam peta mikrozonasi gempa bumi pada skala kabupaten/kota agar dapat digunakan dalam RTRW dan Rencana Detail Tata Ruang (RDTR).

Direktorat Jenderal Tata Ruang tahun ini melakukan pilot project dengan pendetailan tersebut di Pidie Jaya, Palu, dan Sorong. Peninjauan kembali atau revisi RTR dapat dilakukan satu kali dalam lima tahun atau pasca bencana besar.

89 Patahan Aktif

Berdasarkan Peta Gempa 2017, setidaknya terdapat 89 patahan aktif yang melintasi kawasan permukiman. Jika dikaitkan dengan kebijakan pengurangan risiko bencana, pada dasarnya diperlukan tiga hal. Pertama, relokasi/penghindaran, proteksi melalui sistem infrastruktur mitigasi bencana (struktural).

Kedua, adaptasi melalui peraturan zonasi (persyaratan membangun di kawasan rawan bencana) serta penyiapan sistem evakuasi yang efektif dan efisien (jalur dan tempat evakuasi).

Ketiga, kebijakan tersebut dapat menurunkan tingkat bahaya, menurunkan tingkat kerentanan, dan meningkatkan kapasitas wilayah/kota menghadapi bencana.

Upaya relokasi masyarakat memang menjadi salah satu kunci namun banyak kendala yang dihadapi seperti keterbatasan anggaran pemerintah dan keengganan masyarakat untuk pindah. Menyikapi hal tersebut maka upaya yang dapat dilakukan pemerintah adalah melakukan penegakan hukum terkait implementasi RTRW. Bentuknya dapat berupa pengendalian pemanfaatan ruang serta tidak menerbitkan izin lagi di lokasi yang jelas-jelas rawan bencana tinggi.

Selain itu edukasi ke masyarakat perlu ditingkatkan sehingga masyarakat dapat lebih memahami konsekuensi apa yang akan mereka hadapi jika terus bertahan pada lokasi yang sebenarnya telah ditetapkan pemerintah sebagai rawan bencana tinggi. Dengan memperkuat regulasi tata ruang dan meningkatkan kapasitas masyarakat terhadap bencana diharapkan dapat menjadi solusi pengurangan risiko bencana di Indonesia. (hns/hns)

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